What is a NAMUR sensor?

We take a closer look at NAMUR sensors, providing insights into their functionality and highlighting their significant roles across various industrial sectors. Discover the underlying technology behind NAMUR sensors and their i...


The fundamentals of 4...20 mA current loops

4…20 mA current is commonly used to connect process signals to a controller in industrial applications. Sometimes, an analog voltage signal or digital communications is used, but there are many advantages to using a current loo...


The fundamentals of RTD temperature sensors

An RTD temperature sensor is a common device for temperature measurements in a wide range of industrial applications. In this article, we take a look at how they work, the most common types, and their advantages and disadvantag...


Difference between a Zener barrier and an intrinsically safe isolator

The design of intrinsically safe galvanic isolators such as the PR 9000 series of devices differs from Zener barriers. Both devices restrict the energy available to the hazardous area, but by using components such as transforme...


Understanding signal conditioning in industrial automation

In the realm of industrial process control and factory automation, signal conditioning devices play a crucial role in ensuring the accurate transmission of process values. These devices also ensure that the resulting signal is...


Analog signal splitting – How to achieve 2 outputs from 1 input signal

The ability to split an analog signal is a much asked for feature. Whether to simply add a local indicator or to use the additional signal as an input to a separate process or system, signal splitting is a commonly used technique.


8 tips and advice for reducing the effects of EMI on your instrumentation signals

Electromagnetic interference, or EMI, is commonly found in industrial environments, and can adversely affect the accuracy of your instrumentation signals – here are some tips and advice that can help ensure accurate measurement...


What are frequency to current converters and what are they used for?

Frequency to current converters are used in control systems to transform a pulse or frequency to an equivalent current signal.


What is intrinsic safety?

With reference to IEC 60079-11, an intrinsically safe circuit is one which during normal operation and under specific fault conditions does not generate a spark or have sufficient thermal energy to cause ignition of an explosiv...


Advantages of converting RTD and Thermocouple signals to 4…20 mA current

Thermocouple and RTD sensors are commonly used to measure temperature in industrial processes. In cases where these sensors are connect directly to the PLC, the result of the measurement accuracy is sometimes worse than expecte...


Accurate representation of process variables

Accurate representation of process variables is important for several reasons. Process and automation safety, yields, quality and efficiency are all influenced by the accuracy of the measured value.


Functional safety product range

Correct specification of equipment is necessary to achieve and maintain functional safety.


SIL Part 1: Random Hardware Integrity

SIL achievement requires that the design of a safety function meets three specific criteria as outlined in the standard. This section will concentrate on number 1 – Random Hardware Integrity.


SIL Part 2: Architectural Constraints

SIL achievement requires that the design of a safety function meets three specific criteria as outlined in the standard. This section will concentrate on number 2 – Architectural constraints.


SIL Part 3: Systematic Capability

SIL achievement requires that the design of a safety function meets three specific criteria as outlined in the standard. This section will concentrate on number 3 – System Capability.


Temperature sensor assemblies

Accurate temperature measurement and control of temperature is required for several reasons including safety, material stability, yield optimization and quality; in fact, temperature is the most widely measured value across all...


Linearization of temperature measurements

Temperature is the most widely measured value in process control. Across a wide variety of industries from large-scale chemical manufacturing to small labs, accurate temperature measurement is relied upon to ensure such things...


Isolated barriers vs. Zener barriers

Isolated barriers have several advantages compared to Zener barriers:


7 considerations when choosing a multifunction transmitter

Here are some things you should consider if you want to ‘go multifunctional’. Replacing single function transmitters with multifunction transmitters increases system flexibility, reduces your spare parts inventory, and reduces...


Theme: Accuracy specifications

The overall accuracy of a process measurement never gets better than the weakest link in the chain. It is therefore important to evaluate all relevant aspects regarding accuracy before choosing a signal amplifier.


Selecting equipment for explosive atmospheres

The nature of many industrial processes means an explosive gas, vapour or dust atmosphere is present. Whether this be as a by-product of the process or as an inherent process hazard, necessary precautions must be taken to ensur...


ATEX vs IECEx differences explained

When flammable gas, vapor or combustible dust are mixed with air in the correct quantities an explosive atmosphere is created. When an ignition source is introduced, an explosion can take place.


Seven tips and advice for signal conditioning devices in hazardous areas

Many areas in the process industry are classified as hazardous areas. Electrical equipment such as signal conditioning devices in these zones must be intrinsically safe (I.S.) - but there are more aspects to consider when selec...