ATEX vs IECEx differences explained

26 November 2021
When flammable gas, vapor or combustible dust are mixed with air in the correct quantities an explosive atmosphere is created. When an ignition source is introduced, an explosion can take place.


What are frequency to current converters and what are they used for?

11 October 2021
Frequency to current converters are used in control systems to transform a pulse or frequency to an equivalent current signal.


Difference between a Zener barrier and an intrinsically safe isolator

08 July 2021
The design of intrinsically safe galvanic isolators such as the PR 9000 series of devices differs from Zener barriers. Both devices restrict the energy available to the hazardous area, but by using components such as transforme...


What is intrinsic safety?

07 July 2021
With reference to IEC 60079-11, an intrinsically safe circuit is one which during normal operation and under specific fault conditions does not generate a spark or have sufficient thermal energy to cause ignition of an explosiv...


Selecting equipment for explosive atmospheres

06 July 2021
The nature of many industrial processes means an explosive gas, vapour or dust atmosphere is present. Whether this be as a by-product of the process or as an inherent process hazard, necessary precautions must be taken to ensur...


Analog signal splitting – How to achieve 2 outputs from 1 input signal

11 January 2021
The ability to split an analog signal is a much asked for feature. Whether to simply add a local indicator or to use the additional signal as an input to a separate process or system, signal splitting is a commonly used technique.


Functional safety product range

06 November 2020
Correct specification of equipment is necessary to achieve and maintain functional safety.


SIL Part 1: Random Hardware Integrity

06 November 2020
SIL achievement requires that the design of a safety function meets three specific criteria as outlined in the standard. This section will concentrate on number 1 – Random Hardware Integrity.


SIL Part 2: Architectural Constraints

06 November 2020
SIL achievement requires that the design of a safety function meets three specific criteria as outlined in the standard. This section will concentrate on number 2 – Architectural constraints.


SIL Part 3: Systematic Capability

06 November 2020
SIL achievement requires that the design of a safety function meets three specific criteria as outlined in the standard. This section will concentrate on number 3 – System Capability.


Accurate representation of process variables

02 October 2020
Accurate representation of process variables is important for several reasons. Process and automation safety, yields, quality and efficiency are all influenced by the accuracy of the measured value.


Log point calculator for 4512

09 March 2020
With its 100 MB onboard memory, the 4512 can log more than 2.75 million and up to 5.50 million data points depending on the specific device.


Temperature sensor assemblies

21 January 2020
Accurate temperature measurement and control of temperature is required for several reasons including safety, material stability, yield optimization and quality; in fact, temperature is the most widely measured value across all...


RTD calculator

04 February 2019


The fundamentals of RTD temperature sensors

25 January 2019
An RTD temperature sensor is a common device for temperature measurements in a wide range of industrial applications. In this article, we take a look at how they work, the most common types, and their advantages and disadvantag...


The fundamentals of 4...20 mA current loops

23 May 2018
4…20 mA current is commonly used to connect process signals to a controller in industrial applications. Sometimes, an analog voltage signal or digital communications is used, but there are many advantages to using a current loo...


Linearization of temperature measurements

15 March 2017
Temperature is the most widely measured value in process control. Across a wide variety of industries from large-scale chemical manufacturing to small labs, accurate temperature measurement is relied upon to ensure such things...


Isolated barriers vs. Zener barriers

17 February 2017
Isolated barriers have several advantages compared to Zener barriers:


Advantages of converting RTD and Thermocouple signals to 4…20 mA current

01 January 2017
Thermocouple and RTD sensors are commonly used to measure temperature in industrial processes. In cases where these sensors are connect directly to the PLC, the result of the measurement accuracy is sometimes worse than expecte...


7 considerations when choosing a multifunction transmitter

28 May 2015
Here are some things you should consider if you want to ‘go multifunctional’. Replacing single function transmitters with multifunction transmitters increases system flexibility, reduces your spare parts inventory, and reduces...


8 tips and advice for reducing the effects of EMI on your instrumentation signals

09 March 2015
Electromagnetic interference, or EMI, is commonly found in industrial environments, and can adversely affect the accuracy of your instrumentation signals – here are some tips and advice that can help ensure accurate measurement...


Theme: Accuracy specifications

The overall accuracy of a process measurement never gets better than the weakest link in the chain. It is therefore important to evaluate all relevant aspects regarding accuracy before choosing a signal amplifier.